1.巨蛋鄉居 2.巨蛋學校 3.巨蛋會館 4.巨蛋體育館 5.巨蛋倉儲 6.巨蛋式橋墩 7.巨蛋式地道 8.龍卷風避難巨蛋 9.核廢料问题

If used nuclear fuel waste, a by-product of the generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant, is not managed properly, this nuclear fuel will be hazardous to people and the environment for a very long time. 

Currently nuclear fuel waste is mostly stored "safely" on site either in "wet bays" or "dry canisters" on an interim basis at the reactor sites. 

Currently in the USA, Nuclear waste is stored in more than 120 locations in 39 states. 

The US Department of Energy’s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is using a “multiple” barrier approach to isolate the waste. This approach addresses the primary safety issues of:

  • preventing water from reaching the waste canisters,

  • limiting the rate that canisters and waste could be dissolved by water, and

  • slowing or filtering out radioactive particles as they move away from the repository.

This multiple barrier approach uses natural barriers and engineered – or man-made – barriers to ensure the radioactive materials stay inside the repository, located about 1,000 feet below the earth’s surface.

The US Department of Energy has found that a repository at Yucca Mountain remote, desert area on federal land, brings together the location, natural barriers, and design elements to protect the public, including those Americans living in the vicinity, now and long into the future.

The basic idea is to place carefully packaged materials in an underground network.

Specially designed and constructed buildings will be used for receiving and preparing the waste for disposal.  

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will arrive mostly by rail, with some truck shipments. DOE plans to build a railroad through Nevada to Yucca Mountain.

The mountain's dry climate and natural features will work with engineered barriers.

Multiple Barriers

Natural barriers are the mountain, the soil, the rock, and other natural features of the mountain that prevent or limit water from reaching waste packages deep underground in the repository. Natural barriers also prevent, filter out, or limit the amount of dissolved waste that could reach the environment where people might live.

Engineered barriers are the man-made components of the repository designed to help the site’s natural features protect the waste packages from water.  Engineered barriers include the waste container, the repository design and construction, and additional equipment to cover and protect the waste package from damage.

Surface Facilities

The repository will also include several surface facilities outside of the mountain.

These robust, specially designed and constructed buildings will be used for receiving and preparing the waste for disposal.

The repository design allows for future generations to close and seal the repository or to keep it open and monitor it for up to 300 years before decommissioning and closing the site.

The design allows for removal of the waste from the repository in case future technologies provide a better disposal solution or a use for the nuclear materials.

The U.S. Department of Energy would be given authorization to construct spent fuel storage facilities on federal land in all states that have operating or shutdown nuclear power plants, under proposed provisions attached to the Senate’s $30.73-billion energy and waste funding bill for fiscal 2007.

The provisions would not require the DOE to site the storage facilities, but would give the department the authority to do so. This could mean licensing as many as 31 sites for storage facilities.

Spent fuel could be stored there for up to 25 years before being reprocessed and recycled or sent to Yucca Mountain. Funding for all work related to the facilities would come from the Nuclear Waste Fund.

To be eligible for funding for siting studies, the proposed site must meet minimum criteria related to size, hydrology, electricity capacity, population density, zoning, water availability, road access, and seismic stability.

Preference for award of funding for the studies may be given to sites where the applicant has demonstrated community and state support for the use of the site.

As for costs, the GAO (Government Accountability Office) concluded the total cost of the cleanup, since 1995, has been about $10 billion in constant 2005 dollars.  GAO put the overall discounted cost of recycling spent fuel reprocessed at a green field facility in the United States at around $520/kg.

The Government Accountability Office has estimated the cost of Pu-238 production to be about $5000 per gram.
In the simplest case, it takes $1000 to initiate the shipment of waste contaminated with 1g of Pu-238 to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico.

High-level radioactive waste

High-level radioactive waste primarily consists of spent nuclear fuel. High-level radioactive waste is extremely radioactive and radiation shielding is thus imperative during handling, transportation and storage.

It is also sufficiently hot that it has to be cooled. Some of the radioactive substances present in spent nuclear fuel have an extremely long life and highly radioactive, long-lived waste must therefore be stored safely over a very long period of time.

Hazard levels

Some types of radiation from radioactive substances can penetrate through materials. Spent nuclear fuel emits powerful radiation with high penetration levels. Radiation in the vicinity of the fuel emits fatal doses in a very short time if an individual is unprotected. This radiation abates quickly, but still demands radiation shielding measures for hundreds of years.

Other types of radiation are hazardous if the radioactive substances enter the human body, where they emit their radiation. Radioactive substances are known to enter the body primarily through foodstuffs and inhalation.

Time frame

Nuclear fuel is produced from a naturally radioactive mineral ore – uranium. When operating in a nuclear reactor, the fuel's radioactivity increases markedly. After approximately 5 years' use, the fuel is removed from the reactor, but it is still quite hazardous.  The vast majority of the radioactive substances in spent nuclear fuel decay over the course of a few hundred years.  But a few of these substances will remain present for very long periods of time – up to 100,000 years.


核廢料應儲存于避震結構體【 低濕】【低氧】【低溫】環境



1. 張力強 - 不怕地震


2. 完全氣密 - 無氧環境 - 完全隔熱


3. 無氧環境 - 完全防火


4. 建築一體成型 - 完全防水防潮


5. 全隔音 - 完全與外界氣候隔離



6. 抗震能力強




7. 營建速度快



8. 維護成本低


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Controlled Atmosphere Doors