核廢料問題

1.巨蛋鄉居 2.巨蛋學校 3.巨蛋會館 4.巨蛋體育館 5.巨蛋倉儲 6.巨蛋式橋墩 7.巨蛋式地道 8.龍卷風避難巨蛋 9.核廢料问题

If used nuclear fuel waste, a by-product of the generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant, is not managed properly, this nuclear fuel will be hazardous to people and the environment for a very long time. 

Currently nuclear fuel waste is mostly stored "safely" on site either in "wet bays" or "dry canisters" on an interim basis at the reactor sites. 

Currently in the USA, Nuclear waste is stored in more than 120 locations in 39 states. 

The US Department of Energy’s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is using a “multiple” barrier approach to isolate the waste. This approach addresses the primary safety issues of:

  • preventing water from reaching the waste canisters,

  • limiting the rate that canisters and waste could be dissolved by water, and

  • slowing or filtering out radioactive particles as they move away from the repository.

This multiple barrier approach uses natural barriers and engineered – or man-made – barriers to ensure the radioactive materials stay inside the repository, located about 1,000 feet below the earth’s surface.

The US Department of Energy has found that a repository at Yucca Mountain remote, desert area on federal land, brings together the location, natural barriers, and design elements to protect the public, including those Americans living in the vicinity, now and long into the future.

The basic idea is to place carefully packaged materials in an underground network.

Specially designed and constructed buildings will be used for receiving and preparing the waste for disposal.  

Spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will arrive mostly by rail, with some truck shipments. DOE plans to build a railroad through Nevada to Yucca Mountain.

The mountain's dry climate and natural features will work with engineered barriers.

Multiple Barriers

Natural barriers are the mountain, the soil, the rock, and other natural features of the mountain that prevent or limit water from reaching waste packages deep underground in the repository. Natural barriers also prevent, filter out, or limit the amount of dissolved waste that could reach the environment where people might live.

Engineered barriers are the man-made components of the repository designed to help the site’s natural features protect the waste packages from water.  Engineered barriers include the waste container, the repository design and construction, and additional equipment to cover and protect the waste package from damage.

Surface Facilities

The repository will also include several surface facilities outside of the mountain.

These robust, specially designed and constructed buildings will be used for receiving and preparing the waste for disposal.

The repository design allows for future generations to close and seal the repository or to keep it open and monitor it for up to 300 years before decommissioning and closing the site.

The design allows for removal of the waste from the repository in case future technologies provide a better disposal solution or a use for the nuclear materials.

The U.S. Department of Energy would be given authorization to construct spent fuel storage facilities on federal land in all states that have operating or shutdown nuclear power plants, under proposed provisions attached to the Senate’s $30.73-billion energy and waste funding bill for fiscal 2007.

The provisions would not require the DOE to site the storage facilities, but would give the department the authority to do so. This could mean licensing as many as 31 sites for storage facilities.

Spent fuel could be stored there for up to 25 years before being reprocessed and recycled or sent to Yucca Mountain. Funding for all work related to the facilities would come from the Nuclear Waste Fund.

To be eligible for funding for siting studies, the proposed site must meet minimum criteria related to size, hydrology, electricity capacity, population density, zoning, water availability, road access, and seismic stability.

Preference for award of funding for the studies may be given to sites where the applicant has demonstrated community and state support for the use of the site.

As for costs, the GAO (Government Accountability Office) concluded the total cost of the cleanup, since 1995, has been about $10 billion in constant 2005 dollars.  GAO put the overall discounted cost of recycling spent fuel reprocessed at a green field facility in the United States at around $520/kg.

The Government Accountability Office has estimated the cost of Pu-238 production to be about $5000 per gram.
In the simplest case, it takes $1000 to initiate the shipment of waste contaminated with 1g of Pu-238 to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico.

High-level radioactive waste

High-level radioactive waste primarily consists of spent nuclear fuel. High-level radioactive waste is extremely radioactive and radiation shielding is thus imperative during handling, transportation and storage.

It is also sufficiently hot that it has to be cooled. Some of the radioactive substances present in spent nuclear fuel have an extremely long life and highly radioactive, long-lived waste must therefore be stored safely over a very long period of time.

Hazard levels

Some types of radiation from radioactive substances can penetrate through materials. Spent nuclear fuel emits powerful radiation with high penetration levels. Radiation in the vicinity of the fuel emits fatal doses in a very short time if an individual is unprotected. This radiation abates quickly, but still demands radiation shielding measures for hundreds of years.

Other types of radiation are hazardous if the radioactive substances enter the human body, where they emit their radiation. Radioactive substances are known to enter the body primarily through foodstuffs and inhalation.

Time frame

Nuclear fuel is produced from a naturally radioactive mineral ore – uranium. When operating in a nuclear reactor, the fuel's radioactivity increases markedly. After approximately 5 years' use, the fuel is removed from the reactor, but it is still quite hazardous.  The vast majority of the radioactive substances in spent nuclear fuel decay over the course of a few hundred years.  But a few of these substances will remain present for very long periods of time – up to 100,000 years.

巨蛋核廢料解決方案

核廢料應儲存于避震結構體【 低濕】【低氧】【低溫】環境

 

 

1. 張力強 - 不怕地震

祐祥強化圓弧型鋼筋高密度混凝土建築結構,強度為鋼構建築的4倍,重量卻只有鋼構的三分之二;數十年來,經過不斷的工程改良,結構能承受超大跨距承載,無任何樑柱可有效覆蓋巨大寬廣的空間,可儲存數十萬噸的物質

2. 完全氣密 - 無氧環境 - 完全隔熱

美國加州能源委員會所作的建材及建築結構隔熱效率的實驗比較:絕緣隔熱材料包覆在鋼筋混凝土的圓弧建築結構,不但可確實提供氣密性,其隔熱效率為鋼板的20倍,為木材的14倍;鋼筋混凝土的10倍,效率等於是同等厚度的水牆。 

3. 無氧環境 - 完全防火

鋼構建築雖不可燃,但會因溫度達到某個程度時失去原有強度,導致結構承受力大幅下降,高密度混凝土(>4500psi)仍是目前普遍應用的建材中,抗火性最佳的建材。

4. 建築一體成型 - 完全防水防潮

金屬皆會有氧化現象,傳統鋼筋混凝土一旦產生裂縫,濕氣滲入後鋼筋便開始生鏽,很多橋樑、鋼筋混凝土大樓均發生過類似情形,華盛頓州西雅圖市的鋼筋混凝土圓頂體育館也發生裂縫滲水。祐祥是一體無接縫高強度之鋼筋混凝土結構,由被覆絕緣體緊密包覆,完全防範上述情形。

5. 全隔音 - 完全與外界氣候隔離

祐祥弧型建築外殼與RC基礎緊緊密合為一體,與外界氣候完全隔絕,外覆強化PVC纖維氣套及絕緣膠,防護體內完全氣密,完全隔音,可完成大氣溫控為無氧環境儲存任何有害物質。

 

6. 抗震能力強

強化圓弧建築屬特殊結構物,對重力及地震力等外力之抵抗有別於一般傳統結構,蛋型穩定建物形狀,球面圍封軌肋式圓頂(Crenosphere)之基本輻射環狀肋骨更能使外力在整體結構內均勻傳導散佈開來。

就力學而言,複合強化圓弧建築物,尤其是球面軌肋式圓頂,遠優於其他建築物。它的重量僅為鋼結構圓弧建築的60%;混凝土構造圓頂的50%。當地震來襲時,無論是垂直或水平的震動,建築物總是跟著擺動,建物愈輕,其所受的應力愈小。

祐祥球面圍封軌肋式建築,從地面環形基樁延伸到屋頂,採用高密度混凝土之後拉式預力筋連接,使地面與建築物之移動差距減至極微。以淺顯的比喻來說,此種建築物就像是一隻巨龜,穩穩地趴臥並固定在地面或地下,與地震同步上下左右起伏,自然十分穩定。

7. 營建速度快

複合強化薄殼巨蛋營建為祐祥專利施工法,施工完全在氣套內部環境作業,不受任何天候的影響,可有效縮短工作天及工時。

 

8. 維護成本低

祐祥弧型巨蛋強化建築結構,耐用百年,維護費用遠比他種鋼構建築要低數倍以上,為自然界最經久耐用,完全防水隔熱氣密隔音抗地震的建築物。

Satellite Controller

Controlled Atmosphere Doors